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The bristlecone pine is exceptionally long-lived and slow growing, and has been used extensively for chronologies; still-living and dead specimens of this species provide tree-ring patterns going back thousands of years, in some regions more than 10,000 years.Unlike analysis of samples from buildings, which are typically sent to a laboratory, wooden supports for paintings, or panel paintings, usually have to be measured in a museum conservation department, which places limitations on the techniques that can be used.On the other hand, dendrochronology was applied to four paintings depicting the same subject, that of Christ expelling the money-lenders from the Temple.The results showed that the age of the wood was too late for any of them to have been painted by Hieronymus Bosch.The measured ring width data were used to develop a chronology for the buildings that was then correlated against other absolutely dated tree-ring chronologies from the region.
The outer portion is the "late wood" and has sometimes been termed "summer wood", often being produced in the summer, though sometimes in the autumn and is denser.
Dendrochronological (calendar) dates can be matched with ages to calendar years.
Beyond the limit of the absolutely dated tree ring sequence, calibration becomes more problematic (Reimer et al., 2009; Bronk Ramsey et al., 2006; Mellars, 2006a; Mellars, 2006b; Turney at al., 2006; Blockley and Housley, 2009).
The most recent publication of the atmospheric calibration curve is INTCAL09 (Reimer et al., 2009) which superceded the previous dataset, INTCAL04 (Reimer et al., 2004)."C production as measured from tree rings coincide with the periods of highest cooling during the past 1200 years.
In 1859, the German-American Jacob Kuechler (1823–1893) used crossdating to examine oaks (Quercus stellata) in order to study the record of climate in western Texas.
Panels were trimmed of the outer rings, and often each panel only uses a small part of the radius of the trunk.