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Nigeria Table of Contents Throughout Africa societies that had been predominantly rural for most of their history were experiencing a rapid and profound reorientation of their social and economic lives toward cities and urbanism.
As ever greater numbers of people moved to a small number of rapidly expanding cities (or, as was often the case, a single main city), the fabric of life in both urban and rural areas changed in massive, often unforeseen ways.
The Ife period buildings at Ile-Ife were constructed primarily of sun-dried adobe brick and so only a few remnants have survived.
The beads were made by drawing a long tube of glass and cutting it into lengths, mostly under two-tenths of an inch.
Most of the finished beads were cylinders or oblates, the rest are tubes.
The activities of European traders also attracted people to such coastal cities as Lagos, Badagri, Brass, and Bonny, and later Calabar and Port Harcourt.
Overlying the original features of the earlier cities were those generated by colonial and postcolonial rule, which created new urban centers while also drastically altering the older ones.
A second medieval period wall encircles an area of some five sq mi; both medieval walls are ~15 feet tall and 6.5 ft thick.