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The Indian population, which is estimated to have been between 1.5 and 2 million people in the pre-conquest period, numbers between 300,000 and 400,000.
There are over fifty Indian groups, many of which live in relative isolation. The official language is Spanish, which was imposed during the colonial period.
The Atlantic or Caribbean coastal lowlands receive less rainfall than the area along the Pacific.
Many industries are located within this area, along with 20 percent of the population.
Antioquia and the coffee region are considered "white" departments or states because of the reluctance of European settlers to mix with blacks or Indians.
Black people represent about 4 percent of the total population and live primarily on the Caribbean coast, the historical center of the slave trade.
The highlands to the east of the Magdalena Valley include Cundinamarca, where Bogota, the capital, is located.
Lush rain forest and swamps characterize the Pacific lowlands.Lowland coastal areas give way to rain forest, the Andes, and the Inland Ilanos (plains).Colombia is connected to Central America by the Isthmus of Panama. Since declaring independence on 20 July 1810 and achieving it in 1819, Colombia has changed its name seven times.Regional cultural traditions are diverse, with a broad range of distinct groups that have unique customs, accents, social patterns, and cultural adaptations.