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So let’s look at what I left out just now when I quoted the standard.What it really says for vector and string is “shrink_to_fit is a request to reduce capacity() to size().” The emphasis is mine. (Also true for deque.) It can be implemented as a no-op! The standard gives an answer: “[Note: The request is non-binding to allow latitude for implementation-specific optimizations.Perhaps this lack of attention to minimizing capacity isn’t surprising.In most modern code, our concern is usually time performance rather than space requirements.— end note ]” What this means is that the committee knows that there are implementations where doing the right thing might not result in size() == capacity(). A string is an allocated array and a straight-forward implementation would allocation an array even for a string that was only one character long.One character long strings are not particularly common, but short strings are.This works because most implementations will implement the iterator range constructor to not make the capacity any larger than necessary.
Because deque doesn’t have a capacity() member function.
The point of the capacity member function is tell us how much we can grow the number of items in the container before an addition would invalidate iterators.
This concept doesn’t make much sense for deque, so there is no such call as deque::capacity().
For this you need to remove the elements satisfying the predicate of having their value equal to something.
Which leads us to the next section: To remove elements from an sequence container according to a predicate, we used . Indeed, pulling up the elements to be kept was OK in a sequence container, where the values are simply lined up one after the other (by definition of a sequence container).