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Around 77% of its population lives in European Russia, while the 23% lives in its Asian part.
was among the highest in Eastern, Southern and Central Europe.
74% of the population is urban, making Russia a highly urbanized country.
The population of Russia peaked at 148,689,000 in 1991, just before the breakup of the Soviet Union.
Key reasons for the slow current population growth are improving health care, changing fertility patterns among younger women, falling emigration and steady influx of immigrants from ex-USSR countries. The number of Russians living in poverty has decreased by 50% since the economic crisis following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the improving economy had a positive impact on the country's low birth rate.
The latter rose from its lowest point of 8.27 births per 1000 people in 1999 to 13. in 2014.
The death rate accounted for 357,000 of these, which is 137,000 less than in 2006.
At the same time period in 2007, there were just over one million births in Russia (981,600 in 2006), whilst deaths decreased from 1,475,000 to 1,402,300.
The authors also claimed the Lancet's study is flawed because it used the 1985 death rate as the base, while that was in fact the very maximum of the effect of the anti-alcohol campaign.Other factors contributing to the collapse, along with the economic problems, include the dying off of a relatively large cohort of people born between 19 (between the Russian Civil War and World War II), when Russian birth rates were very high, along with an "echo boom" in the 1980s that may have satisfied the demand of women for children, leading to a subsequent drop in birth rates.Government measures to halt the demographic crisis was a key subject of Vladimir Putin's 2006 state of the nation address.Russia's population density is 8.4 people per square kilometre (22 per square mile), making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world.The population is most dense in the European part of the country, with milder climate, centering on Moscow and Saint Petersburg.