Radiocarbon dating the pyramids Free xxx chat australi
These lists have been used to create a comparative dating system for many sites and artefacts by comparing them with the cartouches found on objects uncovered.
While most sites are adorned with inundations of praise to the builder of the structures, unfortunately, the Giza complex is devoid of such engravings or inscriptions (exceptions discussed earlier).
To give just one example, Syncellus, who copied Africanus' list, wrote, "The twenty-fourth dynasty, Bocchoris of Sais, for six years: in his reign a lamb spoke [a short gap in the manuscript] 990 years." Meanwhile Eusebius wrote, "Bocchoris of Sais for 44 years: in his reign a lamb spoke.
Total, 44 years." We are left guessing whether the XXIV dynasty lasted for 6 years, 44, or 990.
In itself, the absence of information is significant.
We have seen that the cartouches found in the 'Relieving chambers' are the best evidence yet for dating the site as the inscriptions run under and behind other blocks and therefore appear genuine.
More serious is that the original text of Manetho is no longer available; what we have are garbled editions quoted by two late Roman writers (Eusebius and Africanus), plus an excerpt from Josephus.
The two versions do not agree on names, or on the counting of years.
It is said that Manetho's main goal was to prove to the Greeks that the Egyptians were the world's oldest people, but that he faced competition; Berosus was trying to do the same thing with his homeland, Mesopotamia, while the chief librarian of the Alexandria library, Erastosthenes, also claimed great antiquity for the Greeks.
It was Manetho who compiled Egyptian history into the thirty dynasties we are familiar with today.
The first problem with Manetho's dynasties was that the Egyptians left few clues as to which dynasty followed which; they weren't interested in recording which dynasties ended in a revolution and which simply died out.
Unacceptable predecessors such as Hatshwpsut and Akhenaten and the Pharaohs from the Amarna period are omitted from the list.
The list also has no record of Kings from the second intermediate period.
It is clear that any results from that line of research are in themselves complicated by the interpretation of the cartouches exact meaning. We know that the use of Giza was not restricted to the 4th dynasty pharaohs because of earlier finds in the area.