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In global terms, it is estimated that there is a recidivism rate of 20%, even though the values are quite varied (between 8-60%) (Loinaz, 2014; Ortega, Bermúdez, Gutiérrez-Quintanilla, Buela-Casal, & Sierra, 2009), and, in the specific case of gender aggressors, recent meta-analyses which were based on data from official records have found a prevalence of 21%, and those that were based on partner reports found a prevalence of 35% (Arias, Arce, & Vilariño, 2013; Babcock et al., 2004).
It seems that the critical period or the period of highest recidivism is found within the first six months (Gondolf, 2002; Kingsnorth, 2006).
Protection indicators are those which regulate the impact of the exposition to risk indicators.
In the spanish Integral Gender Violence Monitoring System, also known as Vio Gen System (Secretaría de Estado de Seguridad, n.d), administered by the Ministerio del Interior, it is found that out of 378,645 registered cases between 20, 68,430 were recidivism cases (18.07%, and 29.62% of those were cases of multirecidivism).
It was also observed that police recidivism was at 6.66% at three months, at 9.04% at six months, at 11.5% at a year, and at 14.65% at two years.
: Some professionals, such as police officers, are required to prevent violent behavior, such as intimate partner violence (IPV).
For this task they use actuarial tools designed to estimate the risk of occurrence of further violence after a previous complaint (police recidivism), taking into account risk and protective indicators which they can observe, in spite of they are not behavioral assessment experts.
A risk or protection indicator can be anything that occurs before a result and which correlates with it, without necessarily implying that the indicator and the result have a cause-effect relationship (Skeem & Monahan, 2011).