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In 2009, the city celebrated its 2,200 years of written history.During its long history, Tashkent has had various changes in names and political and religious affiliations.From 18th to 19th century, the city became an independent city-state, before being re-conquered by the Khanate of Kokand.In 1865, it fell to the Russian Empire, and became the capital of Russian Turkestan.The city was destroyed by Genghis Khan in 1219 and lost much of its population as a result of the Mongols' destruction of the Khwarezmid Empire in 1220.
In ancient times, this area contained Beitian, probably the summer "capital" of the Kangju confederacy.
In Soviet times, Tashkent witnessed major growth and demographic changes due to forced deportations from throughout the Soviet Union.
Today, as the capital of an independent Uzbekistan, Tashkent retains a multi-ethnic population, with ethnic Uzbeks as the majority.
After the 16th century, the name evolved from Chachkand/Chashkand to Tashkand.
The modern spelling of "Tashkent" reflects Russian orthography and 20th-century Soviet influence.
Other scholars, however, disagree with this identification, though it remains one of four most probable sites for the Stone Tower.