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HIV incidence In general, HIV incidence is expressed as the estimated number of persons newly infected with HIV during a specified time period (e.g., a year), or as a rate calculated by dividing the estimated number of persons newly infected with HIV during a specified time period by the number of persons at risk for HIV infection.It is important to understand the difference between HIV incidence and new diagnoses of HIV infection.HIV diagnoses and stage 3 (AIDS) classifications HIV infection is classified as stage 3 (AIDS) when the immune system of a person infected with HIV becomes severely compromised (measured by CD4 cell count) and⁄or the person becomes ill with an opportunistic infection.In the absence of treatment, AIDS usually develops 8 to 10 years after initial HIV infection; with early HIV diagnosis and treatment, this may be delayed by many years.HIV surveillance data are used by CDC’s public health partners in other federal agencies, health departments, nonprofit organizations, and academic institutions to help target prevention efforts, plan for services, and develop policy.This fact sheet contains terms, definitions, and methods of calculation that are commonly applied to HIV surveillance data.With the release of the gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr6303a1.htm? s_cid=rr6303a1_e), CDC now uses a stage system to describe HIV infection (see Stage of Disease).Diagnoses of HIV infection and deaths of persons with diagnosed HIV infection are the number of persons diagnosed with HIV infection and the number of persons with a diagnosed HIV infection who have died in a given time period, respectively.
Due to delays in reporting, CDC recommends allowing for a 12-month reporting delay before including data in trend analyses.
Stage 3 (AIDS) and deaths of persons with infection ever classified as stage 3 (AIDS) are the number of persons with infection classified as stage 3 (AIDS) and the number of persons with infection ever classified as stage 3 (AIDS) who have died in a given time period, respectively.
Note that deaths of persons with infection ever classified as stage 3 can be due to any cause (i.e., the death may or may not be related to HIV infection), and the category is therefore different from the designation deaths due to AIDS.
Diagnoses of HIV infection (including stage 3 classifications), and death data provide trends of the burden of disease and are useful for tracking the time from a diagnosis of HIV infection to a stage 3 classification or death.
Disparities between populations in the time from HIV infection diagnoses to stage 3 classifications or time to death underscore inequities in access to testing and care; this knowledge can help direct resource allocation.
In determining that adjustments for reporting delays were no longer necessary, CDC considered improvements in data quality as a result of the following: availability of additional case information; shorter time for processing duplicates from multiple states; a better system for national data processing.