Many of Cairo's oldest Coptic churches, including the Hanging Church, are located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as Coptic Cairo.Following the Muslim conquest in 640 AD, the conqueror Amr ibn As settled to the north of the Babylon in an area that became known as al-Fustat.By 1340, Cairo had a population of close to half a million, making it the largest city west of China.Ibn Battuta traveled thousands of miles during the course of his trek. One significant note Ibn Battuta made was that Cairo was the principal district of Egypt, meaning Cairo was Egypt's most important and most influential city (Ibn Battuta, 2009). The city's metropolitan area is one of the largest in Africa, the largest in the Middle East and 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area.Located near the Nile Delta, modern Cairo was founded in 969 AD by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo.This was known as al-Askar (the city of sections, or cantonments) as it was laid out like a military camp.A rebellion in 869 by Ahmad ibn Tulun led to the abandonment of Al Askar and the building of another settlement, which became the seat of government.
Cairo is considered a World City with a "Beta " classification according to Ga WC.
In 905, the Abbasids re-asserted control of the country and their governor returned to Fustat, razing al-Qatta'i to the ground.
which was to serve as the new capital of the caliphate.
However, the origins of the modern city are generally traced back to a series of settlements in the first millennium.
Around the turn of the 4th century, the Romans established a fortress town along the east bank of the Nile.
Cairo has the oldest and largest film and music industries in the Middle East, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, Al-Azhar University.