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It evolved from a parochial militia into a violent franchise deployed across large parts of North and South Kivu amid flaws in the various peace deals in eastern DRC, says the Usalama report.“Raia Mutomboki is first and foremost a reaction to the presence of former Interahamwe group FDLR which has wreaked havoc across wide parts of eastern Congo.Most of the mutineers were previously members of the pro-Tutsi Congrès national pour la défense du peuple (CNDP).In 2009 CNDP signed a deal with the government which the mutineers felt Kinshasa did not fully implement."One of the predictors of where a new insurgency will emerge in the DRC is to look for past movements: armed groups beget armed groups, as commanders take advantage of networks of former combatants and rekindle relations with smugglers, arms dealers and miners" “The complexity of the war in eastern Congo, with its entangled web of actors pursuing a multiplicity of agendas can be overwhelming and confusing.The region is a fertile environment for the development and growth of armed groups and warlordism,” according to the Enough Project.The group continues to be implicated in human rights violations and the illicit exploitation of natural resources over the last 15-20 years.FDLR remains active in parts of Masisi, Walikale, Southern Lubero and Rutshuru territories.
In December 2012, M23 briefly occupied the North Kivu provincial capital of Goma.
Raia Mutomboki Another M23 collaborator, Raia Mutomboki, (“outraged citizens”) is the largest armed body in South Kivu, according to Usalama Project.
Raia Mutomboki, established in 2005 in South Kivu’s Shabunda Territory by Congolese army defector Pastor Jean Musumbu in response to FDLR massacres, comprises various groups headed by local leaders and FARDC deserters.
“Officially, M23 wants better governance, security, democratization and development of the country.
Lately, they publicly demanded amnesty, military as well as political reintegration,” says the Enough Project report.
The group operates around South Lubero Territory with extended positions in northeastern Rutshuru Territory and is involved in the mineral, timber and coal trade, and also engages in illegal taxation and poaching.